【双语】中色股份王宏前:国际产能合作新丝路

发布:2017-05-10 16:36 来源: 中国外汇网

国际产能合作新丝路

An Industry View of the “Belt and Road” Initiative

 

作为以国际工程承包和有色金属矿产资源开发为主业的大型企业,中色股份从哈萨克斯坦出发,将“中国制造”“中国设计”“中国标准”带出国门,在“一带一路”的路线图上用项目成果和口碑为国际产能合作画上了浓墨重彩的一笔。

China's “Belt and Road” Initiative is a major strategic initiative aimed at fostering trade and infrastructure development. China Nonferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd (NFC), as a large-scale enterprise engaged in contract engineering and consulting contracting and development of non-ferrous metals resources, is in a unique position to play a role in this program. It has more than two decades of experience operating beyond China's borders, earning a reputation as a reliable builder of roads, bridges and power plants and exploring and exploiting mineral resources.

从上世纪90年代开始,中色股份就在我国周边国家展开布局,逐步摸索并不断加大重点国别项目的开发和执行力度,其发展路径与“一带一路”倡议不谋而合。中国有色金属建设股份有限公司总经理王宏前认为,中色股份进行国际产能合作的经验与“一带一路”的核心理念是一致的,就是合作共赢。秉持“共商、共建、共享”的基本原则,共赢互信,方能做大朋友圈,才能铸就命运共同体。中色股份进行国际产能合作输出的不是过剩的、落后的技术装备,而是中国最先进、最成熟的产品和服务。这是中色股份的责任与担当。

 

Wang Hongqian, president and director, maintains that NFC’s success in the international market is due to its ability to deliver on its promises of “win-win” style cooperation. The company executive says NFC lives up to its motto of “doing business together, carrying out construction together and sharing information.” In the following interview with China Forex, the executive discusses the company's experience in the international market and how this is being applied under the “Belt and Road” Initiative.

 

《中国外汇》:“一带一路”从倡议到实施推进已经三年多了,您认为其对于沿线60多个国家的意义在哪里?沿线国家的反响如何?

China Forex: It has been more than three years since the “Belt and Road” initiative was rolled out. In your view, what significance has it had for more than 60 countries that are included in this program? What has been the response from these countries?

王宏前:“一带一路”的推进是具有长期战略意义的,周边沿线国家都能够从中得到切切实实的收益。总体而言,它促进了中国及“一带一路”沿线国家的政治互信和共同发展,有利于将政治互信、地缘毗邻、经济互补等优势转化为务实合作、持续增长的优势,形成优势互补,互利共赢。我们亲身感受到,三年多来,周边沿线国家对“一带一路”从开始的观望、怀疑到逐步接受和认可,也经历了一个过程。当然,不同国家对此的认知和接受程度仍然存在很大的差异。

Wang Hongqian: The “Belt and Road” Initiative has long-term strategic significance that has already provided tangible benefits to a large number of countries. In general, it promotes mutual trust and development. It supports practical cooperation that contributes to sustainable economic growth. Our experience over the last three years has demonstrated that countries in the areas covered by the program are gradually shifting from a “wait-and-see” attitude to one of gradual acceptance and active participation. Undoubtedly, the level of acceptance varies considerably from country to country.

从目前来看,首先,“一带一路”进一步增进了沿线国家对于中国的了解,中国的经济发展模式直接或间接地对周边国家产生了影响。其次,“一带一路”帮助沿线国家解决了发展中的资金难题。再次,“一带一路”有利于沿线国家的资源优势转化成经济优势。

China's economic development has direct and indirect effects on its neighbors. The “Belt and Road” initiative is a way to help solve financial problems related to infrastructure development and allow these countries to turn their resources into economic advantages. It promotes economic globalization and embraces openness and inclusiveness despite pressures from a trend towards protectionism. Additionally, it increases the understanding of China and Chinese culture.

 

《中国外汇》:中色股份从上世纪90年代开始进行海外布局,路线与“一带一路”倡议的规划区域高度吻合,中色股份在战略布局中有哪些考虑?

China Forex: Since the 1990s, NFC has been working on expanding its presence in overseas markets. The “Belt and Road” initiative dovetails nicely with these efforts. Could you give us an idea of what preparations have gone into the effort to expand your presence abroad?

王宏前:我国的有色金属行业发展到现在,冶炼能力强,矿山能力小,总之还是缺少矿产资源。因此,以中国现有的资源是难以实现2020年翻一番的目标的,必须进行全球化配置。

Wang Hongqian: At present, China's non-ferrous metals industry is competitive in smelting, but it has limited capacity in mining. China's domestic resources are insufficient to meet the government's target of doubling capacity by 2020. China therefore must look outwards in order to reach this goal.

中色在讨论战略区域选择时有两个原则,一是选择与周边国家深度合作,二是选择和我国优势互补的国家合作。“一带一路”国家的优势是两个“近”:一是距离近;二是文化近。这点同样重要,我国和周边国家在语言、饮食习惯、理念上是相通的。因此,“一带一路”的沿线国家是我们的最佳选择,这不是偶发,而是经过了深思熟虑的研究与脚踏实地的探索。事实雄辩地证明,当初我们的选择与如今的国家战略不谋而合。

There are two principles in the initiative for the company and they are to deepen cooperation with neighboring countries and make use of complementary strengths. There are two advantages of the “Belt and Road” Initiative and they are geography as well as cultural affinity. The latter is quite important as in many cases we share a common language or customs and cuisine or values. Therefore, countries included in this initiative generally offer a favorable environment for our operations. The “Belt and Road” Initiative is a carefully constructed strategy that is also very pragmatic. The facts show that our past choices of markets for our foreign operations have generally been in line with the “Belt and Road” Initiative of today.

因此,在“一带一路”倡议提出之前,中色股份在本世纪初就先行一步,成为国际产能合作的先遣队和排头兵,足迹遍布沿线的20多个国家和地区,并积极参与了这些国家的基础建设和有色金属工业建设。“一带一路”倡议提出之后,中色股份在周边国家已经有了基础和先发优势,再借助国家的倡议和政策支持,项目启动很快。

Before we launched our own drive under the “Belt and Road” initiative, we had been exploring international cooperation with companies in more than 20 countries and regions included in this strategic program. NFC therefore had a first mover advantage and was able to benefit from government support very quickly.

 

《中国外汇》:“一带一路”的推进为中色股份的发展带来了哪些新的机遇,又有哪些成果?

China Forex: What new opportunities can the initiative bring to the development of NFC? What achievements have you made so far?

王宏前:由于积极践行“一带一路”和国际产能合作战略,中色股份2015年的国际工程承包业务收入和毛利分别同比增长80%和60%以上。中色股份充分发挥自身的影响力、带动力,把中国制造、中国技术带出去进行国际产能合作。我们输出的不是过剩的、落后的技术装备,而是中国最先进、最成熟的产品和服务。这是中色股份的责任与担当。“一带一路”是时代赐予中国企业的发展机遇。中国企业用中国的技术、装备以及文化,擦亮了“中国设计”“中国制造”“中国标准”的品牌,以实力得到了国际社会的广泛认可,在国际舞台上展现了中国企业的形象。在全球产业结构加速调整、我国经济发展进入新常态的背景下,中色股份在“一带一路”沿线国家推进国际产能和装备制造合作,既利当前,又惠长远;既增强了企业自身的核心竞争力和国际竞争优势,又进一步深化了我国与有关国家的互利合作,促进了当地经济和社会的发展。

Wang Hongqian: NFC actively pursues opportunities under the “Belt and Road” initiative. In 2015, the company's income from international engineering contracting rose more than 80% and related gross profit increased over 60%. In production cooperation, NFC was not supplying surplus or obsolete products and equipment. It supplied its most advanced products and services, and that showed it was taking its responsibilities as a business partner seriously. Chinese enterprises have a good track record in the international arena, and their technology and equipment have been widely accepted. Chinese companies have made a contribution to economic and social development in many parts of the world.

 

《中国外汇》:国际产能合作是“一带一路”重要的具体实现形式。中色股份在长期国际产能合作中收获了哪些经验,可以运用到“一带一路”中去?

China Forex: Cooperation in production is an important way to realize potential from the “Belt and Road” initiative. What kinds of experience can NFC bring to the initiative?

王宏前:中色股份进行国际产能合作的经验与“一带一路”的核心理念是一致的,就是合作共赢。“一带一路”国际产能合作不是单赢,是互利共赢。中色股份多年来在 “一带一路”沿线国家开发、建设、经营,积累了丰富的经验。我们在合作中,形成了互利共赢、相互信任、彼此互补、协同发展的理念。

Wang Hongqian: NFC’s experience in cooperative production is consistent with the core values of the “Belt and Road” initiative. The key is ensuring that we stay true to attaining our “win-win” objective. International cooperation cannot be just a one-way benefit.

这种合作共赢理念的优势在于,在国家政策的引导下,可以充分利用我国和 “一带一路”沿线国家的友好关系,借助良好的外部环境和我国有色金属行业自身发展的特点,为企业国际产能合作提供重要的发展契机。近年来,中色股份秉承“合作共赢”的理念,在哈萨克斯坦、蒙古、伊朗、印度、越南、埃及等国,将业务从有色金属领域拓展到石油化工领域,“朋友圈”越做越大。

The advantage of this cooperative win-win concept is that under the guidance of national policy, NFC can make full use of the friendly relations between China and its foreign partners. In recent years, NFC has strengthened its ties with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Iran, India, Vietnam, Egypt and other countries by adhering to this "win-win” principle in non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals and other areas.

在伊朗,中色股份从上世纪90年代就开始与其进行国际产能合作。国际产能合作的核心是工业化合作。对于一个国家,工业化是经济基础,而工业的核心是金属,也就是钢铁和有色金属。20多年来,中色股份变“输血”为“造血”,帮助伊朗奠定了有色金属工业的基础。因其牢靠的工业基础,工业化自成体系,所以虽经西方制裁,但伊朗经济仍然不断发展,人民生活依然稳定。因此在伊朗一提起NFC(中色股份),政府、企业都非常认可这个品牌。

NFC began its international cooperation in production with Iran in the 1990s. For more than 20 years, NFC has helped Iran lay the foundation for its non-ferrous metals industry. Instead of viewing the country as an export market for its equipment, NFC has helped Iran build up its domestic industry. Despite Western sanctions, Iranians have seen some stability in their lives. The NFC brand has also won recognition from the Iranian government and industry.

哈萨克斯坦是“一带一路”国际产能合作最典型的区域,而中色股份恰恰又是产能合作的典型企业。哈萨克斯坦的优势是资源,我们的优势是技术、装备以及金融,双方有互补性。中色股份早在2005年就作为总承包商承建了哈萨克斯坦电解铝厂,结束了哈萨克斯坦不产铝的历史,也成为中色股份在哈萨克斯坦的一张名片。如今,中色股份哈萨克斯坦公司是哈萨克斯坦最大的工程承包商,解决就业超过2000人,累积缴税1.5亿美元,在2016年哈萨克斯坦进口排名中位居第七,单项进口排名第一,为哈萨克斯坦经济社会发展做出了突出贡献。中哈项目不但反映了我国的技术装备水平,而且体现了我们诚信合作的态度和互利共赢的原则,提升了中哈两国的政治关系。

Kazakhstan was where some of the initial efforts under the “Belt and Road” initiative were made, and it is uniquely suited to NFC. Kazakhstan has resources and NFC has technology, equipment and financial resources. These are complementary advantages. As early as in 2005, NFC, as a general contractor, built an electrolytic aluminum plant in Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan project was the country's first in aluminum production, and our participation in this project has been an effective calling card for us. The NFC arm in Kazakhstan is now the country's biggest engineering contractor and it plays an important role in trade. The project displays not only the superior level of China's technology and equipment, but also the good faith between the two countries in their “win-win” style cooperation.

 

《中国外汇》:您能否详细谈谈,如何在国际产能合作中践行这种“合作共赢”的理念?

China Forex: Can you elaborate on how this kind of "win-win cooperation" works in practical terms?

王宏前:中色股份国际产能合作的典范之一是中蒙之间的合作。尽管蒙古政府的政策多变,但中色股份在蒙古的项目仍能坚持多年并得到双方认可。这其中最重要的两点原因一是严格按照当地法律依法经营,二是履行社会责任。

Wang Hongqian: NFC’s cooperation with Mongolia is a good example of how this works. Political instability and shifts in policy have been a major problem for foreign investors in Mongolia. In some instances Chinese enterprises have decided to pull out of the country entirely. But NFC’s operations in Mongolia have proved to be models of trust and an ability to work together in a smooth manner. This is because of our strict compliance with local laws and regulations and the importance we put in fulfilling our social commitments.

在蒙古,中色股份谨记“合作共赢”的核心思想,遵守当地法律法规,履行社会责任。从成立鑫都矿业公司的那一天起,中色股份就把这个中蒙合资企业视为蒙古国的企业,严格按照蒙古国的法律、会计、税收、劳工等制度去规范经营。双方股东以一种创新的合作模式,充分利用了“两个市场”和“两种资源”,实现了资源报国。

In Mongolia, NFC sticks to the core value of ensuring "win-win cooperation." Since we formed Xindu Mining, the joint venture has been operated as a Mongolian enterprise, strictly complying with Mongolian accounting rules as well as tax and labor laws among other requirements.

国际产能合作能够在潜移默化中把好的做法带到当地,给当地人民的生活带来切实的改变。可以说,一个企业能够带动一个地方的全面发展。鑫都矿业敖包锌矿所在的苏赫巴托省省会西乌尔特市,主要以农牧业为主,工业基础很差。我们刚进入那里时,道路都是土路,当地居民除了土豆几乎没有其他蔬菜。我们给当地带来了两个改变。一是绿化,从中国引进树种,推广到省城,现在已经植树上万棵。二是种蔬菜,我们修建了塑料大棚,可生产多达50个品种的蔬菜。随着企业的建设和基础设施的陆续完工,城市逐渐有了现代化的气息,我们的员工从蒙古包搬进楼房,从游牧民族转变成为产业工人。时至今日,中蒙政府双方一致认为,鑫都矿业是双方互利共赢的典范。

This kind of production cooperation can promote “best practices” and bring tangible benefits to the living standards of the local people. An enterprise can drive development in its surrounding area, and the company's Aobao Zinc Mine. This project was located in an area that mainly relies on agriculture and animal husbandry. It has a weak industrial base. NFC brought two important changes. For one, it brought a greener environment with the introduction trees from China. Now there are tens of thousands of trees in this area. Second, it brought vegetables. NFC built a greenhouse where up to 50 varieties of vegetables are grown.

With infrastructure gradually completed, the area has taken on a modern look. Our employees moved from yurts to permanent buildings, changing from a nomadic life to one more suited to an industrial workforce. China and Mongolia agree that Xindu mining has been a model for future cooperation.

 

《中国外汇》:国际产能合作的过程不会是一帆风顺,中色股份在这方面有哪些经验和教训?

China Forex: Surely there are failures as well as successes. What lessons have been learned?

王宏前:国际产能合作分为对外投资和工程承包。矿产资源的投资首先看国别,第二看项目本身。像我们之前说到的,“一带一路”项目大多需要用中国的资金帮助沿线国家发展,因此,资金返还的问题非常关键,需要在选择国别、地区时格外慎重。资源类项目的投资不仅要看资源本身情况,即资源是否可靠,还要考虑到项目的基础设施状况。有些项目本身资源很好,但没有任何基础设施,而基础设施需要投入的资金远远超过项目本身,如果没有考虑到这方面成本的话,必然会亏损。工程承包项目最大的问题是支付能力。因此合作时更倾向于选择主权担保、政府间合作的项目。

Wang Hongqian: The international cooperation in the area of production capacity is divided into investment and engineering contracting. For investment in mineral resources, we first need to consider the national environment and then we look at the project itself. The “Belt and Road” initiative aims to use China's funds to help countries participating in this strategic program. The key to satisfactory investment returns is in making a careful choice of the country or region for the investment in question. The investment also depends on resource exploration and infrastructure. Some projects have very good resources, but there is no infrastructure. If putting in infrastructure requires investment that exceeds the cost of the project itself, there could be substantial losses. But the biggest potential problem is the customer's ability to pay. It is important to choose projects with full guarantees and cooperation between two governments.

境外投资不可能是一帆风顺的。中色股份走到今天,是几代人、几十年的努力和积累,才逐步赢得了沿线国家政府和企业的信任和认可。我们在这个过程中也是小心翼翼。尤其是发展的前期,可以走得慢一些,但是必须要一步一个脚印,稳扎稳打。中色股份在进行“一带一路”国际产能合作的过程中,遵循市场规律,按照国际惯例和规则,用实力获得国际上的认可。打响了品牌之后,自然会有客户找上门来。哈萨克斯坦巴夏库和阿克托盖两个世界级铜矿选厂在2012年全球招标时,中色股份因为多报2亿美元落败,土耳其公司中标。但2014年土耳其公司因为拖延进度而被迫退出,中色股份再次接手时工期只剩两年。在如此紧张的工期内,中色股份在哈萨克斯坦的工程设计、施工、建设都严格按照欧美标准严格执行,业主方还聘用了由西方人组成的管理团队,实施P6计划管理、流程管理以及严格的HSE(健康安全环保)管理。这是迄今为止国际工程领域标准最高、要求最严、执行最细的工程管理模式,施工管理甚至细化到每一天。中色股份按照国际最高标准完成了项目,自身的技术、服务、工程管理能力也都上了一个台阶,得到了哈方的高度评价。

And yes, you are correct to say that there are failures as well as successes. What NFC has achieved is the result of much effort and the gradual winning of trust and recognition from governments and enterprises. In the process of cooperating under the “Belt and Road” initiative, NFC has followed market rules and international practices, and it has won international recognition for its competitiveness. With the establishment of its brand, naturally there will be more customers in future.

 

NFC lost a bid on a global tender for the construction of copper mills in Kazakhstan in 2012. Its bid was US$200 million over that of a Turkish company that submitted the winning bid. However, in 2014 the Turkish company was forced to withdraw from the project after lengthy delays. NFC took over the construction, agreeing to complete the project in two years. Under such a tight schedule, NFC managed to strictly comply with European and American standards for engineering design, construction and operation. The owners employed a Western management team and strict health, safety and environmental protection management. This has been an engineering management model of the highest standards which have won high praise in Kazakhstan.

“一带一路”之下的海外战略对于中国企业寻找新的经济增长点有着重要意义,但同时也伴随着诸多挑战,包括法律、风俗、宗教、文化、社会责任等各种要素,都需要我们去面对、学习、理解和适应。沿线国家的情况不同,其中不乏投资的高风险国家。有些国家的政局动荡,法律体系不健全,对于企业就是很大的考验。企业只有在品牌、管理、技术、抗风险能力等综合实力具备的前提下,才可以单独“出海”。

The strategy under the “Belt and Road” initiative has faced many challenges in terms of different regulations as well as customs, religious practices, cultural issues and social responsibility. This has forced us to pay attention, understand and adapt. Countries in the areas covered under the initiative, despite cultural similarities, also have different national conditions. In some countries, the risks are significant, particularly from political turmoil and a weak legal system. In order to take on projects with these kinds of risks, the company needs branding, management, technology and the ability to protect against risk.

 

《中国外汇》:“一带一路”倡议提出后,国企、民企都纷纷响应“出海”,您认为,中国企业在积极助力“一带一路”倡议的过程中,如何防范相关的风险?

China Forex: You spoke earlier about getting government support for projects in order to limit risk. What else can Chinese enterprises do to prevent risk as they participate in the “Belt and Road” initiative?

 王宏前:“一带一路”倡议是在与周边国家的既有双边、多边及区域合作的基础上上升到国家层面的,因此应该充分利用原有的机制、机构和政策,使企业投资“出海”形成更加协调统一的步伐。企业与周边国家的合作应该从对方迫切需要发展且对民生有重要意义的基础项目或工业项目入手,先要“雪中送炭”,然后才是“锦上添花”。国内企业切忌不顾市场规律和规则,一哄而上打价格战。恶性竞争不仅会造成企业的利益损失,还会毁坏中国企业的整体形象。

Wang Hongqian: The introduction of the “Belt and Road” initiative started with bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation at the state level. The initiative should make full use of existing mechanisms, institutions and policies. When enterprises seek opportunities abroad, they should cooperate in a unified and coordinated fashion. The cooperation between Chinese enterprises and neighboring countries should be targeted on development that contributes to people's livelihood. It should first look to building up basic infrastructure before moving on to other areas. Additionally, if Chinese enterprises disregard market rules and regulations and insist on participating in price wars, this will result in vicious competition which will harm the economic interests of Chinese enterprises and damage their image as well.

中国企业在“出海”的过程中,需要防范政治与法律风险、市场风险、社会和文化风险、环境风险、资源与基础设施风险。以政治与法律风险为例,当企业利益与所在国利益发生冲突时,主权国家就可能通过修改法律而取消企业的优惠政策或者调整税收政策,甚至取缔企业的经营权。为了避免此类风险的发生,国内企业一定要在东道国寻找好的合作伙伴,关注当地的政治和法律变化,并与中国驻外机构保持密切沟通,以争取在经营环境出现变化时掌握主动权。防范市场风险、环境风险、资源与基础设施风险,都要求中国企业在项目前期的尽职调查中做好充分的数据收集与资料分析工作,尽量考虑周全。为了避免社会与文化风险,国内企业需要遵守东道国的法律、尊重当地宗教、了解原住民的生活习惯与工会规则。

Chinese enterprises need to guard against political and legal risks, market risks, social and cultural risks and environmental risks as they look for opportunities abroad. When the interests of Chinese enterprises and those of the host country are in conflict, the sovereign state may modify its laws by eliminating preferential policies or adjusting tax rules. It may even bar foreign enterprises from continued operation in the host country. In order to avoid such risks, Chinese companies must find good local partners, pay attention to local political and legal changes and maintain close communication with Chinese institutions based abroad so that they can respond to changes in the operating environment. To prevent risk, Chinese companies must collect and analyze market data and perform careful due diligence in the early stages of these projects. In order to avoid social and cultural risks, Chinese enterprises need to abide by the laws of the host countries and the rules of local trade unions as well as respect local religions and understand the habits and customs of people in the local area.

 

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